The Reserve Bank of New Zealand is the central bank of New Zealand and is constituted under the Reserve Bank of New Zealand Act 1989. Employees of the bank operate under the framework of a managerial hierarchy.
The Reserve Bank of New Zealand does not offer financial services to the public nor does it offer deposit insurance, and its website refers people to other financial institutions.
Unlike the United States Federal Reserve, the Reserve Bank does not have elements of private ownership; according to its website, "The Reserve Bank does not have shareholders. It is 100% 'owned' by the New Zealand Government, with any extra revenue that the Reserve Bank makes going back into the Crown accounts. The National Bank is not a government department, but is a body corporate whose finances are included in the Crown accounts."
Like all modern monetary systems, the monetary system in New Zealand is based on fiat and fractional-reserve banking. In a fractional-reserve banking system, the largest portion of money created is not created by the Reserve Bank itself, 80% or more is created by private sector commercial banks.
Issuing of currencyEdit
The Bank by virtue of the Reserve Bank Act has the sole right of issuing New Zealand legaland coins. The Reserve Bank controls the issuing of currency to banks and also replaces used and damaged money from circulation. In March 2005 the bank decided to remove the 5 cent coin from circulation (the following year), as well as reducing the size of 10, 20 and 50 cent coins.
The Reserve Bank accepts all New Zealand currency for payment at face value. This applies to all demonetised or withdrawn currency, however such currency need not be accepted by money changers as it is no longer legal tender. All decimal notes are legal tender except $1 and $2 notes as these have been withdrawn. Damaged notes are still worth something so long as they are recognisable. The Reserve Bank website notes that as a rule of thumb if there is more than half a bank note they will pay its full value.
The Reserve Bank from time to time produces limited runs of legal tender coins for collectors and have a New Zealand theme and design. These coins do not circulate, but are legal tender. The Coins are sold for the Reserve Bank via New Zealand Post's business unit.